Obstetrics And Gynecology
Amenorrhea is a menstrual condition characterized by absent menstrual periods for more than three
monthly menstrual cycles.
Breast Infections and Inflammations
The most common type of breast infection is Lactational Mastitis which causes a woman’s nipples to
become cracked and sore when she is breastfeeding. Non-lactational mastitis is similar to lactational
mastitis but occurs in non-lactating women.
Candidiasis (Yeast Infection)
Candidiasis, sometimes called moniliasis or a yeast infection, is an infection caused by yeast on the skin
and/or mucous membranes.
If abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix spread deeper into the cervix or to other tissues or organs,
the disease is then called cervical cancer or invasive cervical cancer.
A painful irritation of the cervix, cervicitis often lasts several months or longer sometimes occurring after
childbirth or use of oral contraceptives.
Chronic pain is long-standing pain that persists beyond the usual recovery period or occurs along with a
chronic health condition such as arthritis.
Cystocele (Fallen Bladder)
Cystocele is the name for a hernia-like disorder in women that occurs when the wall between the
bladder and the vagina weakens causing the bladder to drop or sag into the vagina.
Type 1 diabetes may also be known by a variety of other names, like insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
(IDDM), juvenile diabetes, brittle diabetes, or sugar diabetes.
Dysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition characterised by severe and frequent menstrual cramps and
pain associated with menstruation.
Cancer of the endometrium, the most common cancer of the female reproductive organs is a disease in
which malignant (cancerous) cells are found in the endometrium. Endometrioid cancer is a specific type
of endometrial cancer.
Endometriosis is a common gynecological condition involving abnormal buildup of tissue often causing
pain or infertility.
Fibrocystic Breast Changes
Generalized breast lumpiness is known by names such as fibrocystic disease and fibroid breasts. Doctors
now believe these are just part of the normal breast changes many women undergo throughout the
various stages of their lives.
Flat or Inverted Nipples
An effective breastfeeding baby usually has little trouble breastfeeding even if his/her mother's nipples
appear to be flatter. A less effective breastfeeder may need some time to figure out how he/she can
draw the nipple into the mouth with latch-on.
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which the glucose level is elevated and other diabetic symptoms
appear during pregnancy in a woman who has not previously been diagnosed with diabetes.
Hemorrhoids are blood vessels, normally present in and around the anus and lower rectum that become
swollen due to stretching under pressure.
Hypothyroidism and Pregnancy
Hypothyroidism is a condition marked by an underactive thyroid gland and may occur during pregnancy.
Ineffective Latch-On or Sucking
This condition occurs when a baby cannot effectively remove milk from the breast during breastfeeding,
resulting in poor weight gain by the infant and reduced milk production by the mother.
Infertility is defined as the disease of the reproductive system that impairs the body's ability to perform
the basic function of reproduction.
Insufficient or Delayed Milk Production
Most mothers worry at some point that they do not have enough milk. A delay in the time when milk
comes in sometimes occurs in mothers dealing with certain health conditions.
Mastalgia (Breast Pain)
Mastalgia is breast pain and is generally classified as either cyclical (associated with menstrual periods)
Mastitis is often used interchangeably with the term breast infection but mastitis may also be due to an
inflammation. Often a reddened area is noted on the breast.
Medical Conditions and Pregnancy
Certain medical conditions may complicate a pregnancy. However, with proper medical care, most
women can enjoy a healthy pregnancy, despite their medical challenges.
Menopause refers to the time in a woman’s life when the menstrual cycle stops permanently. It is a
normal and natural event that occurs in all women.
Menorrhagia is the most common type of abnormal uterine bleeding characterized by heavy and
prolonged menstrual bleeding.
Multiple pregnancy involves more than one fetus. Twins, triplets, quadruplets, and so on, are examples
of multiple pregnancy.
Nipple Problems and Discharge
Nipple conditions are a common benign breast condition affecting many women. Some problems are
related to lactation, while others are not. Like all breast conditions, any nipple problems should be
reported to your physician for a prompt diagnosis and treatment.
Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease in which there is a loss of bone mass and destruction of bone
tissue, causing weakening of the bones in the hips, spine and wrists.
Ovarian cancer is a disease in which malignant cells are found in an ovary.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Caused by a certain type of bacteria, pelvic inflammatory disease results in pelvic pain and the possibility
of an ectopic pregnancy (a fertilized egg becoming implanted outside the uterus).
Pelvic pain may originate in genital or extragenital organs in and around the pelvis, or it may be
psychological, which can make pain feel worse or actually cause a sensation of pain, when no physical
problem is present.
Perimenopause refers to the transitional period of time before menstruation actually stops, which is
marked by changes in the menstrual cycle, along with other physical and emotional symptoms.
Plugged Milk Ducts
A plugged duct feels like a tender lump in the breast.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)
Polycystic ovarian syndrome involves two of the following - lack of ovulation for an extended period of
time, high levels of male hormones or small ovarian cysts.
One particular postpartum complication is postpartum thyroiditis, a condition characterized by an
inflamed thyroid gland.
A pregnancy is divided into three phases called trimesters. Each trimester has its own significant
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
A much more severe form of the collective symptoms known as premenstrual syndrome (PMS),
premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a chronic medical condition that requires attention and
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
Most women experience some unpleasant or uncomfortable symptoms during their menstrual cycle.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Sexually transmitted diseases are infectious diseases transmitted through sexual contact.
Sore nipples are probably the most common difficulty mothers have when breastfeeding.
Symptoms and Diagnosis of Multiple Pregnancy
Symptoms of multiple pregnancy may include: uterus is larger than expected for the dates in pregnancy,
increased morning sickness, increased appetite, excessive weight gain - especially in early pregnancy, or
fetal movements felt in different parts of abdomen at same time.
Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infections describe a health problem that results from a bacterial infection along the
Cancers that occur in each part of the uterus have their own names, such as cervical cancer or
endometrial cancer, but are sometimes broadly defined as uterine cancer because the structure is part
of the uterus.
Fibroids are the most frequently seen tumors of the female reproductive system.
Cancer of the vagina, a rare kind of cancer in women, is a disease in which malignant cells are found in
the tissues of the vagina.
Vaginitis refers to any inflammation or infection of the vagina.
Vulvar cancer is a malignancy that can occur on any part of the external organs, but most often affects
the labia majora or labia minora.
Vulvitis is simply an inflammation of the vulva, the soft folds of skin outside the vagina.
Vulvovaginal atrophy refers to a condition when a woman develops pain, dryness, itching and irritation
of the vagina and vulva caused by low estrogen levels, usually as a result of menopause.