Thalassemia is an inherited disorder that affects the production of normal haemoglobin (a type ofprotein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body).
Anaemia is the decrease in amount of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) or the amount of haemoglobin in theblood. It can also be defined as a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen. Feeling tired, weakness,shortness of breath or a poor ability to exercise are a few symptoms of anaemia. There are many typesof anemias that require clinical care by a healthcare professional. They are listed below:
Anaemia of Folate Deficiency
Folate deficiency is the lack of folic acid (one of the B vitamins) in the blood, which can cause a type ofanaemia known as Megaloblastic/Pernicious anaemia.
Aplastic anaemia occurs when the bone marrow produces too few red blood cells, white blood cells andplatelets, making the patient susceptible to infection and making it more difficult for blood to clot.
Beta Thalassemia/Cooley's Anaemia
Beta thalassemia is caused by mutations in the beta chain of the haemoglobin molecule. There are twotypes of Beta Thalassemia: beta thalassemia major (Cooley’s anaemia ) - both (two) beta chain geneshave deletions, causing the most severe type of beta thalassemia. Thalassemia major patients needfrequent blood transfusions and may not survive a normal lifespan. During the first one to two years oflife, they can be pale, fussy, have a poor appetite, and have many infections. Without treatment, thespleen, liver, and heart become enlarged, and bones can become thin and brittle. A major problem isthe buildup of iron in the heart and other organs, resulting in heart failure for some patients in theirteens or early 20s.
Thalassemia minor or thalassemia trait - one beta gene has a deletion, resulting in anaemia .Thalassemia minor is further divided into: thalassemia minima - person has few or no symptoms.Thalassemia intermedia - person has moderate to severe anaemia.
Bleeding / Clotting Disorders
Abnormalities in platelets (which regulate clotting of the blood) or defects in the blood vesselsthemselves, can lead to excessive bleeding. Similarly, excess clotting can cause problems by obstructingveins and arteries.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Thrombophlebitis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot develops in a vein deep in the body.
G6PD (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) Deficiency
G6PD deficiency is the lack of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (an enzyme present in Red BloodCells) in the blood, which can cause a type of anaemia known as Hemolytic Anaemia.
Hemolytic anaemia is a disorder in which the red blood cells are destroyed faster than the bone marrowcan produce them.
Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder. Children with hemophilia lack the ability to stop bleedingbecause of the low levels, or complete absence, of specific proteins, called "factors," in their blood thatare necessary for clotting.
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
TP is a blood disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood.
The most common cause of anaemia is iron deficiency. Iron is needed to form haemoglobin.
Megaloblastic (Pernicious) Anaemia
Megaloblastic anaemia is a type of anaemia characterized by very large red blood cells.
Polycythemia vera is a rare blood disorder in which there is an increase in all blood cells, particularly redblood cells.
Sickle Cell Disease
Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder characterized by defective haemoglobin (a protein inred blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body).
Thalassemia is an inherited disorder that affects the production of normal haemoglobin (a type ofprotein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues in the body).
Thrombocythemia is a myeloproliferative disorder. It is characterized by the production of too manyplatelets in the bone marrow.