Bones, Muscles and Joints (Orthopaedics)
Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases are distinguished by pain, swelling, and limited movement in
joints and connective tissues in the body.
Avascular necrosis is a disease that may cause bone or joint collapse as a result of loss of blood supply to
the bone due to injury or any other cause (such as long-term use of certain medications).
Back and Neck Pain
Low back pain can range from mild, dreary, aggravating pain, to persistent, severe, disabling pain in the
lower back that restrict mobility. Neck pain is pain that occurs in the area of the seven cervical vertebrae
in the neck area.
Benign Bone Tumors
There are many benign bone tumors that require medical care by a physician or other healthcare
professional. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview.
There are different types of bone cancers, which are normally defined as a malignant/cancerous
because that destroys bone tissue.
Calluses and Corns
Calluses are protective pads made up of the thickened upper layer of skin due to frequent rubbing of the
area. Corns are small calluses that develop on the top of the toes due to pressure or rubbing against
shoes or other toes.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a state in which the median nerve is compressed as it passes through an
opening from the wrist to the hand called the carpal tunnel.
Sometimes called Codman's tumor, a Chondroblastoma is a rare type of benign bone tumor that
originates from cartilage.
Chondrosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that develops in cartilage cells.
Chronic pain is long-standing pain that persists beyond the usual recovery period or occurs along with a
chronic health condition like arthritis.
Congenital Hand Deformities
Congenital anomalies are deformities that are present at the time of birth.
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome
Cubital tunnel syndrome feels similar to the pain that occurs from hitting the "funny" bone in your
elbow. The "funny" bone in the elbow is actually the ulnar nerve, a nerve that crosses the elbow (the
ulnar nerve begins in the side of the neck and ends in the fingers).
Dupuytren's contracture, also called Dupuytren's disease generally begins with the thickening of the skin
in the palm of the hand, which may develop into a hard lump or thick band that eventually could cause
the fingers to contract or pull into the palm.
Common elbow problems include arthritis, bursitis, fractures, and injury.
An enchondroma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) bone tumor that originates from cartilage.
Ewing sarcoma is a cancer that occurs mainly in the bone or soft tissue.
Fibrous dysplasia is a chronic disorder in which bone expands due to abnormal development of fibrous
tissue, often resulting in inconsistent growth of bones, pain, frail bones, or bone deformity.
Foot pain is majorly caused by improper foot function. Ill fitted shoes can worsen and in some cases,
cause foot problems.
A fracture is a partial or complete bone break.
Giant Cell Tumor
A giant cell tumor is one that is made up of a huge number of benign (non-cancerous) cells that form an
aggressive tumor - usually near the end of the bone near a joint.
Head and Neck Cancer
Cancer that initiates in any part of the head or neck (except the brain or eye) is called head and neck
A hip fracture is a break in the femur (thigh bone) of the hip joint.
The following are some of the most common hip problems: arthritis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis,
traumatic arthritis, avascular necrosis, bursitis, and hip pointer.
Many knee problems are a consequence of the aging process and continual wear and tear on the knee
joint (i.e., arthritis). Other knee problems are a result of an injury or a sudden movement that strains the
A normal spine, when viewed from behind appears straight. However, a spine that is affected by
kyphosis shows evidence of a forward curvature of the back bone (vertebrae) in the upper back area,
giving a humpback appearance.
Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)
Lateral epicondylitis also known as tennis elbow, is characterised by pain in the back side of the elbow
and forearm, along the thumb side when the arm is alongside the body with the thumb turned away.
The pain is caused by damage to the tendons that bend the wrist backward away from the palm.
Ligament Injuries to the Knee
Ligament injuries to the knee include injuries to one of the four knee ligaments (elastic bands of tissue
that connect bones to each other).
Low Back Pain
Low back pain can range from mild, dull, annoying pain, to persistent, severe, disabling pain in the lower
back. Pain in the lower back can restrict mobility and interfere with normal functioning.
Lumbar Disc Disease (Herniated Disc)
Lumbar disc disease occurs in the lumbar area of the spine. As discs degenerate, fragments of the disc
material can press on the nerve roots located just behind the disc space causing pain, numbness or
changes in sensation.
Lumbar Strain (Weight Lifter's Back)
A lumbar strain is an injury to the lower back, which results in damaged tendons and muscles that spasm
and feel sore.
Medial Epicondylitis (Golfers and Baseball Elbow)
Medial epicondylitis, also known as golfer's elbow, baseball elbow, suitcase elbow, or forehand tennis
elbow, is characterised by pain from the elbow to the wrist on the palm side of the forearm.
Myeloma Bone Disease / Multiple Myeloma
Myeloma bone disease is cancer that affects certain type of white blood cells.
Because of the location and range of motion of the neck, it is often left unprotected and subject to injury
and therefore pain.
Osteoarthritis is a chronic, degenerative, joint disease characterized by the breakdown of joint cartilage
and adjacent bone in the neck, lower back, knees, hips and/or fingers.
Also called osteocartilaginous exostoses, osteochondroma is an overgrowth of cartilage and bone near
the end of the bone near the growth plate.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) also known as brittle-bone disease is a genetic disorder characterised by
bones that break easily without a specific cause.
Osteomyelitis is an inflammation or swelling of bone tissue that is usually the result of an infection.
Osteoporosis or porous bone is a disease in which there is a loss of bone mass and destruction of bone
tissue, causing weakening of the bones in the hips, spine and wrists.
Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that develops in the osteoblast cells that form the outer covering
Paget's Disease of the Bone
Paget's disease of the bone is a chronic bone disorder in which bones become enlarged and deformed.
Bone may become dense, but fragile, because of excessive breakdown and deformation of bone.
Patellar Tendonitis (Jumper's Knee)
Patellar tendonitis also known as jumper’s knee is a condition caused by inflammation of the tendon
connecting the kneecap to the shin bone often caused by overuse of the knee joint.
Patellofemoral Stress Syndrome (Runner's Knee)
Patellofemoral stress syndrome is a condition common among runners involving knee pain caused by
irritation of the cartilage of the kneecap.
Two of the more common pelvic problems include pelvic fractures and osteitis pubis.
Repetitive Motion Injury
Repetitive motion injuries, also called repetitive stress injuries are temporary or permanent injuries to
muscles, nerves, ligaments and tendons caused by performing the same motion over and over again.
Rotator Cuff Injury
An injury to the rotator cuff, such as a tear may happen suddenly when falling on an outstretched hand
or develop over time due to repetitive activities.
Sciatica also known as lumbar radiculopathy is a pain that originates along the sciatic nerve which
extends from the back of the pelvis down the back of the thigh.
A spine affected by scoliosis exhibits a lateral or sideways curvature, and a rotation of the back bones
(vertebrae), giving the appearance that the person is leaning to one side.
Dislocation of the shoulder means the displacement of the upper arm bone (humerus) out of the
Shoulder Pain and Problems
Common shoulder problems include: dislocation, separation, bursitis, impingement syndrome,
tendonitis, rotator cuff tear, adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder) and fracture.
Tendonitis of the shoulder is an inflammation of the rotator cuff and/or biceps tendon.
Many activities can lead to soft-tissue damage of muscles, ligaments, and tendons.
Sprains and Strains
The majority of sports injuries are caused by minor trauma involving muscles, ligaments, and/or
tendons, including contusions (bruises), sprains and strains.