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Blood (Haematology)

Alpha Thalassemia

Thalassemia is an inherited disorder that affects the production of normal haemoglobin (a type of protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body).

Anaemia

Anaemia is the decrease in amount of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) or the amount of haemoglobin in the blood. It can also be defined as a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen. Feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath or a poor ability to exercise are a few symptoms of anaemia. There are many types of anemias that require clinical care by a healthcare professional. They are listed below:

Anaemia of Folate Deficiency

Folate deficiency is the lack of folic acid (one of the B vitamins) in the blood, which can cause a type of anaemia known as Megaloblastic/Pernicious anaemia.

Aplastic Anaemia

Aplastic anaemia occurs when the bone marrow produces too few red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets, making the patient susceptible to infection and making it more difficult for blood to clot.

Beta Thalassemia/Cooley's Anaemia

Beta thalassemia is caused by mutations in the beta chain of the haemoglobin molecule. There are two types of Beta Thalassemia: beta thalassemia major (Cooley’s anaemia ) - both (two) beta chain genes have deletions, causing the most severe type of beta thalassemia. Thalassemia major patients need frequent blood transfusions and may not survive a normal lifespan. During the first one to two years of life, they can be pale, fussy, have a poor appetite, and have many infections. Without treatment, the spleen, liver, and heart become enlarged, and bones can become thin and brittle. A major problem is the buildup of iron in the heart and other organs, resulting in heart failure for some patients in their teens or early 20s.

Thalassemia minor or thalassemia trait - one beta gene has a deletion, resulting in anaemia . Thalassemia minor is further divided into: thalassemia minima - person has few or no symptoms. Thalassemia intermedia - person has moderate to severe anaemia.

Bleeding / Clotting Disorders

Abnormalities in platelets (which regulate clotting of the blood) or defects in the blood vessels themselves, can lead to excessive bleeding. Similarly, excess clotting can cause problems by obstructing veins and arteries.

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Thrombophlebitis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot develops in a vein deep in the body.

G6PD (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) Deficiency

G6PD deficiency is the lack of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (an enzyme present in Red Blood Cells) in the blood, which can cause a type of anaemia known as Hemolytic Anaemia.

Hemolytic Anaemia

Hemolytic anaemia is a disorder in which the red blood cells are destroyed faster than the bone marrow can produce them.

Hemophilia

Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder. Children with hemophilia lack the ability to stop bleeding because of the low levels, or complete absence, of specific proteins, called "factors," in their blood that are necessary for clotting.

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

TP is a blood disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood.

Iron-Deficiency Anaemia

The most common cause of anaemia is iron deficiency. Iron is needed to form haemoglobin.

Megaloblastic (Pernicious) Anaemia

Megaloblastic anaemia is a type of anaemia characterized by very large red blood cells.

Polycythemia Vera

Polycythemia vera is a rare blood disorder in which there is an increase in all blood cells, particularly red blood cells.

Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder characterized by defective haemoglobin (a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body).

Thalassemias

Thalassemia is an inherited disorder that affects the production of normal haemoglobin (a type of protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues in the body).

Thrombocythemia

Thrombocythemia is a myeloproliferative disorder. It is characterized by the production of too many platelets in the bone marrow.