Plastic, Reconstructive and Cosmetic Surgery is performed to correct facial and body abnormalities caused by birth defects, trauma, disease, or aging. It includes a variety of fields such as cosmetic surgery, surgery for clefts, craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, burn surgery and microsurgery.
A facelift is the most comprehensive approach to treating facial wrinkles and sagging caused by aging. The best candidates for face-lift surgery are people who are in their 40's to 70's. During a face-lift, the surgeon removes loose skin, accesses the tissues beneath the skin and alters their tightness. Depending on the circumstances, the face-lift can take anywhere from two to six hours. Bandages over the face are removed on third day and stitches on seventh day.
A neck lift is a set of procedures to enhance the appearance of your neck. Procedures can include removing loose skin, altering neck muscles tightness and improving neck contour. Surgery, involves making cuts in front of and behind your ears. All scars become imperceptible with time.
Cosmetic eyelid surgery dramatically improves the appearance of tired, droopy and aged eyes. This is accomplished by removing excess skin and pockets of fat from the upper and lower eyelids through incisions made along the natural skin lines of the eyelids or incisions totally hidden within the lower lid. Blepharoplasty usually takes less than two hours, depending on the amount and location of tissue being removed.
Rhinoplasty is surgery to reshape the nose or correct bumps, indentations, or other defects in the nose.
Rhinoplasty may be done using general or local anaesthesia. The incisions are usually made inside the nose so that they are not visible after the surgery. Depending on the desired result, some bone and cartilage may be removed, or tissue may be added (either from another part of the body or using a synthetic filler). A splint is placed outside the nose to support the new shape of the nose as it heals. Nasal packing for a day may be used inside the nose to provide additional support. It is usually done as a Daycare procedure but sometimes requires a 1-night stay in the hospital or surgery center.
Lip augmentation is a cosmetic procedure that can give you fuller, plumper lips. These days, injectable dermal filler is the most commonly used method of lip augmentation. Alternatively augmentation with fat offers long lasting results.
Thick or fat lips are reduced in size by removing a strip of the red part of the lip along with underlying tissue from one end to the other. This surgery is done under local anaesthesia, without any hospital stay and both the lips can be addressed at the same time.
Chin augmentation is usually done to balance the face by making the chin bigger compared to the nose. The best candidates are people with receding chins but who have a normal bite. It may be done either by inserting an implant or by moving or reshaping bones. Incisions are places inside mouth or under the chin and are not visible.
People who have large chins in comparison to other facial features benefit from cosmetic chin reduction. The aesthesis of the face requires that each part is in harmony with the others. Thus a chin that is too large detracts from the other normal features. This imbalance can have a major impact on the psychological well being of the patient. Patient can suffer low self esteem and become withdrawn. Using specialized instruments, the surgeon reshapes and removes the excess bone to properly contour the chin. Chin reduction better known as genioplasty aims to restore the balance and provide a natural aesthetic appearance
CHEEK, JAW AND CHIN IMPLANTS
Facial implants are used to enhance certain features of your face, including your cheeks or your jaw line. A good candidate for a face implant is someone in good health and who has reasonable expectations.
Otoplasty or ear reshaping is a cosmetic surgery procedure to improve the appearance o the ear and earlobes. Otoplasty surgery corrects prominent ears. Most commonly an incision is made on the back of the ear where it’s is hidden and sutures are used to the bend the ear cartilage to create a natural looking ear.
Breast augmentation is a way to enhance self-image and boost confidence. Breast augmentation also known as augmentation mammoplasty is a surgical procedure to increase breast size. During surgery, implant is placed behind the natural breast tissue. This makes the breasts larger. The incisions are made in the natural crease of the breast, in the armpit or in the underside of the nipple area, which makes them inconspicuous. The procedure is usually performed under general anesthesia and takes between one to two hours to complete.
BREAST REDUCTION SURGERY
Breast reduction surgery (reduction mammoplasty) is advised to women who suffer with neck or back pain, skin infections because of large breast size. This surgery removes excess of the tissue and skin from the breasts to reshape and reduce the size of the breasts. It can also make the area of dark skin surrounding the nipple (areola) smaller.
Breast reduction surgery is done under general anesthesia. The surgery usually takes 3 to 5 hours. An overnight stay is usually recommended. A compression garment is advised post surgery to contour the breasts.
BREAST LIFT (MASTOPEXY)
Sagging of breasts is a common problem with aging. Breast lift or mastopexy can raise sagging or drooping breasts, and can elevate the nipple and areola. The surgery usually takes 3 to 5 hours. An overnight stay is usually recommended. For smaller reductions, the surgery may be done under local anesthesia.
MALE BREAST REDUCTION (Gynaecomastia)
Good candidates for surgery include those who have firm and elastic skin that will allow for effective re-shaping of the chest contour. The surgeon will remove excess fat by making a small incision around the lower half of the chest area using liposuction. It is a day care procedure done under local anaesthesia or general anaesthesia and it normally takes 1- 2 hours to complete. Compression garment is recommended after surgery
Liposuction is a minimally invasive surgery that removes stubborn fat deposits which are not responding to diet and exercise. It is performed either under general anaesthesia or local anaesthesia with sedation. It is often treated as a day case. The surgeon will make a small incision in the area being treated and the fat is sucked out using cannulas. Likewise abdomen, back, thighs, arms and neck can be addressed.
It is also called ‘tummy tuck’ and is recommended if patient has excess skin in abdomen that doesn't respond to diet or exercise. This surgery flattens the abdomen by removing extra fat and skin, and tightening muscles in your abdominal wall. The incision is like a C section and is usually hidden in garments. This surgery is specially suited for post weight loss surgery patients or women who have a lax abdomen after pregnancy.
Brachioplasty, or ‘arm lift’ cosmetic surgery, reshapes the underside of the upper arm from the armpit to the elbow. The surgery removes extra skin and fat to give a more toned and balanced appearance. Extra fat is removed with liposuction and if required, a cut on the inner surface of upper arm from the armpit to the elbow removes the extra skin.
MEDIAL THIGH PLASTY
Medial thigh plasty is aesthetic reshaping of the thigh following removal of excess medial skin and fat. The new contour should be attractive, the scars inconspicuous, and complications minor. Medial thigh plasty may be solely an upper thigh crescent excision adjacent to the labia majora (scrotum), extended with a wide band excision tapering at the knee for distal deformity, or something in between. The extent of the operation depends on the deformity and the patient's expectations and acceptance of risk. The essential facets to improve thigh contour are excision of medial thigh skin, lipoplasty, efficient use of prone and supine operative positions, accurate presurgical marking of a unique excision design using multiple patient positions.
LATERAL THIGH LIFT AND BUTTOCK LIFT
Lateral thigh and buttock lifts are ideal for patients who are in relatively good shape with excess skin and fat in the thigh area. A surgeon will show you what procedures are available to solve your particular problem. Wide variations in the design of the incisions to meet clothing or personal desires are possible. Lateral or anterior thigh lifts can be performed as separate procedures, if desired. Lifting the entire thigh and buttock (circumferential lower-body lift) will require much longer incisions that start in the buttock crease, extend around the groin, come up over the side of the abdomen and reach over the flank and across the back.
A liposuction technique is used to harvest the fat and prepare it for transfer. The fat is then injected into the desired portion of the body or the face. The procedure is most commonly performed under local anesthesia with a light oral sedation.
Fat transfer has been utilised for rejuvenation of the face and augmentation of lips, buttocks, breasts & hands.
EAR LOBE REPAIR
Piercing your ears puts the earlobes at risk for stretching, tearing and keloid scarring (a benign growth of scar tissue). Because of their location, the tears are often split and are very visible. Earlobe repair surgery fixes the split and enables you to wear earrings again.
Xanthelassma (or xanthelasma palpebrarum) is a sharply demarcated yellowish deposit of cholesterol underneath the skin, usually on or around the eyelids. Xanthelasmata can be removed surgically and this gives a great relief to the patient.
DIMPLE CREATION SURGERY
Dimples have always being considered to be cute and lucky – however not all of us were blessed with that natural factor. Dimple creation surgery can simulate this naturally occurring process. To create a dimple, a small painless incision is made in the inside of your cheek. There is no incision or scar on the outside skin. A small absorbent suture is passed through the inside of the cheek and catches the under surface of the skin where the dimple is desired. When this suture is tied it causes a dimpling in the overlying skin. At first there is a dimple present even without smiling, but after several days, or sometimes a few weeks, the dimple is only present while smiling or moving the face. The adhesion between the inner skin and muscle will cause a permanent dimple even after the suture is absorbed.
If you have a skin lesion such as a mole, cyst, wart or skin tag and would like it removed, it is usually a very simple procedure. Most lesions are removed using a scalpel under local anaesthetic, which means you will be awake, but the area will be completely numb. Other techniques include applying chemical treatments or freezing the skin. Sometimes a laser is used to destroy the lesion while skin tags may be simply snipped off with surgical scissors.
If you have a scar that makes you feel uncomfortable or self-conscious you may consider scar revision. A scar may be caused by burns, injury, surgery, acne or chickenpox. There are many options available to improve its appearance. Scar revision is normally performed under local anaesthetic and takes between 30 minutes and an hour. This means that you will be awake, but the area will be completely numb.
As with any cosmetic procedure, it is important that you review your expectations thoroughly before you decide to proceed. Your specialist will explain the results you can expect, and will discuss the associated risks and alternatives to the procedure before going ahead.
Microdermabrasion can be helpful in the treatment of common skin problems ranging from acne scars to sun damage and even more severe problems such as melasma and hyperpigmentation.
Body piercing, a form of body modification, is the practice of puncturing and placing a ring or a piece of jewellery. Ear & nose piercing is a common procedure. Lips, umbilicus, nipple piercing are also becoming popular.
It is popularly known as leocoderma or white patch. It generally happens due to absence of melanin pigmentation over the skin. White patches on the skin when stabilized with medical treatment can be treated surgically by ‘melanocyte transfer’ to restore the pigmentation.
A hymenoplasty is a surgical procedure in which a woman's hymen is reconstructed. You should expect some swelling and discomfort following the procedure. You will have sutures that do not need not be removed, as they are dissolvable. Most patients go home same day.
Repeated child births cause dilatation of muscles of vagina leading to widening of vagina.
Lax muscles and supporting tissue layers are meticulously dissected out and repositioned in their normal position. Vectors of muscles are restored gaining a good vaginal and perineal tone. Improved voluntary tone and muscle strength leads to an improved self esteem.
Hair transplant is a surgical technique that moves individual hair Follicles from a part of the body called the donor site to bald or balding part of the body known as the ‘recipient site’. It is primarily used to treat male pattern baldness. In this minimally invasive procedure, grafts containing hair follicles that are genetically resistant to balding are transplanted to the bald scalp. It can also be used to restore eyelashes, eyebrows, beard hair, chest hair, and pubic hair and fill in scars caused by accident or surgery such as face lifts and previous hair transplants. Hair transplantation differs from skin grafting in that grafts contain almost all of the epidermis and dermis surrounding the hair follicle, and many tiny grafts are transplanted rather than a single strip of skin.
Cleft Lip & Palate
Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth defects. This means they happen while baby is developing. Normally, the mouth and nose of a baby develop between the first 6 and 12 weeks of growth inside the mother. In some babies, parts of the lips and roof of the mouth don’t grow together. Because the lips and the palate develop separately, it’s possible to have cleft lip alone, cleft palate alone, or both together.
The most common surgical procedures for a child with a cleft lip and palate anomaly are as follows:
Repair of the cleft lip
Repair of the cleft palate
Revision of the cleft lip
Closure and bone grafting of the alveolar cleft
Closure of palatal fistulae
Cleft lip rhinoplasty and septoplasty
Lip scar revision
LeFort I maxillary osteotomy
In addition, orthodontic treatment is very specialised and varies case by case. The 2 stages of orthodontic treatment of a child with cleft lip and palate are as follows:
• Surgery-related orthodontics
• Early management (since birth until the time of surgical closure of the palate)
• Orthodontics related to alveolar bone graft
• Permanent dentition management
• Cleft-related orthodontics (not related to surgical treatments)
Ear reconstruction is a specialized kind of plastic surgery, which is used to form an ear that looks as normal as possible.
The plastic surgeon will use a piece of cartilage (material that holds body structure together) from your child’s ribcage to form the framework for the ear. Where possible, the surgeon will use your child’s excising ear as a model for the new one. The reconstruction process is in two stages about six to twelve months apart.
Breast reconstruction is the rebuilding of a breast, usually in women. It involves using autolgous tissue or prosthetic material to construct a natural-looking breast. Often this includes the reformation of a natural looking areola and nipple. This procedure involves the use of implant or relocated flaps of the patient’s own tissue.
A leading medical speciality centre, Artemis Hospitals was established in 2007 and is promoted by Apollo Tyres. Artemis is designed as one of the most advanced healthcare facility provider in India and constitutes a seamless integration of diagnostic, day care and critical care service.
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